When a corporation faces financial turmoil in Canada, the path to corporate bankruptcy in Canada can be complex and fraught with challenges. This article aims to simplify the corporate bankruptcy process, offering clear explanations and actionable insights for businesses grappling with insolvency. Discover the key steps your company needs to take, understand the critical role of Licensed Insolvency Trustees, and learn how to navigate these difficult waters.

Key Takeaways

  • Corporate bankruptcy in Canada is legally complex. It impacts incorporated companies, sole proprietorships, and partnerships differently. Typically, it protects the personal assets of corporate shareholders unless personal guarantees or director liabilities are involved.

  • A Licensed Insolvency Trustee (LIT) is central to the corporate bankruptcy process. A LIT assists businesses with legal compliance, manages proceedings, and deals with creditors, making selecting a qualified and experienced LIT critical for navigating bankruptcy.

  • Various bankruptcy options are available for Canadian businesses, including voluntary assignment, creditor-initiated bankruptcy, and Division I proposals. Each has distinct processes and objectives to address companies’ specific financial challenges.

Illustration of a corporate bankruptcy process in Canada

Understanding Corporate Bankruptcy in Canada

Corporate bankruptcy in Canada is a structured procedure intended for incorporated businesses struggling to meet their financial commitments, which can result in business bankruptcy. The implications of declaring bankruptcy differ significantly for corporations, sole proprietorships, and partnerships. While a corporation undergoes corporate bankruptcy, an individual declares personal bankruptcy.

While corporations cease to exist without fully settling their debts, the personal assets of small business owners are usually not impacted unless there are personal guarantees on loans or liability for the debts. On the other hand, the bankruptcy of a sole proprietorship or partnership is akin to personal bankruptcy, potentially jeopardizing the owners’ personal assets.

Incorporated Companies

When a business is incorporated, it takes on a new identity, becoming a separate legal entity known as a corporation. This separation means that the corporation is responsible for its debts and obligations, and the shareholders are typically protected by limited liability. However, under certain conditions, owners and directors may incur personal liability for specific debts, affecting their credit.

Incorporated companies undergoing bankruptcy follow a distinct set of steps that may entail either dissolving the company via corporate bankruptcy or restructuring it according to pertinent laws.

Legal Process

In Canada, corporate bankruptcy proceedings occur in provincial courts, overseen by the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act (BIA) guidelines and the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (CCAA). Key to this process is the Licensed Insolvency Trustee (LIT), who collects and verifies the business’s personal and financial information and provides federally regulated professional advice.

Creditors can initiate bankruptcy proceedings through the court or agree to a voluntary bankruptcy proposed by the business.

The Role of a Licensed Insolvency Trustee (LIT)

The corporate bankruptcy process greatly depends on a Licensed Insolvency Trustee (LIT), who offers business guidance and services, secures legal compliance, and facilitates the bankruptcy procedure. They engage directly with creditors, gather and validate the business’s personal and financial details, and oversee the bankruptcy process to ensure compliance with legal requirements.

LIT Responsibilities

The LIT’s responsibilities are manifold and crucial for the smooth conduct of bankruptcy proceedings. They include:

  • Ensuring compliance with the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act

  • Managing the bankruptcy proceedings in accordance with legal obligations

  • Implementing essential measures within the bounds of the law

The LIT also plays a crucial role in informing creditors about the bankruptcy proceedings, organizing creditors’ meetings, and overseeing the sale of the bankrupt corporation’s assets.

Choosing the Right LIT

Selecting an appropriate LIT is a significant decision that has a potential substantial influence on the outcome of the bankruptcy process. The LIT must have the following qualifications and characteristics:

  • Requisite qualifications, experience, and a license from the Federal government

  • Local presence

  • Commitment to client education

  • Good industry reputation

  • History of successful case management in similar situations

Types of Corporate Bankruptcies in Canada

In Canada, corporate bankruptcies can take on various forms, each with unique processes and implications. The most common types include voluntary assignment, creditor-initiated bankruptcy, and Division I Proposals.

Voluntary Assignment

A voluntary assignment, also known as a voluntary assignment or assignment in bankruptcy, involves a business declaring bankruptcy. This process typically involves the debtor applying for bankruptcy via a licensed insolvency trustee. While voluntary assignment can lead to the cessation of wage garnishments and threats of lawsuits, it also entails certain costs, such as payments based on income and potential administrative charges.

Creditor-Initiated Bankruptcy

Creditors, too, can initiate bankruptcy proceedings. They can compel a debtor into bankruptcy by following a prescribed legal procedure outlined in the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. This process can give creditors more control, but it also means that the company’s operations may be overseen by the trustee or conducted under their supervision.

Division I Proposals

Division I Proposals, on the other hand, offer a way for corporations with substantial unsecured debt to sidestep bankruptcy. They provide a mechanism for corporations to reorganize and significantly reduce their debt. This process involves calculating the cash influx and expenditures the project will generate over time to establish cash flow. The proposal is then presented to creditors, who decide whether to accept or reject the plan.

Illustration of various types of corporate bankruptcies in Canada
Illustration of protecting personal assets during corporate bankruptcy
Illustration of legal consequences of corporate bankruptcy in Canada

Protecting Personal Assets During Corporate Bankruptcy

Personal assets are generally protected in corporate bankruptcy. However, there are exceptions to this rule, and businesses can employ strategies to minimize personal liability.

Exceptions to Personal Asset Protection

Exceptions to personal asset protection typically occur when an individual assumes the role of a guarantor or co-borrower. In these cases, their assets may be seized if the business defaults on its payments. Furthermore, directors may encounter personal liabilities, including responsibility for unpaid taxes and employee wages.

Strategies for Minimizing Personal Liability

Business owners can minimize their personal liability by:

  • Incorporating their business to separate personal and corporate assets.

  • Seeking guidance from Licensed Insolvency Trustees on how to safeguard their family assets.

  • Segregating their personal assets from their business assets, such as incorporating the business, limiting personal guarantees, and establishing a business checking account.

Managing Business Debts and Financial Obligations

During corporate bankruptcy, businesses need to take a proactive approach to managing their debts and financial obligations. This involves prioritizing creditors and negotiating payment terms.

Prioritizing Creditors

Prioritizing creditors is a critical aspect of the bankruptcy process. This ensures that secured creditors, who possess a legal entitlement to certain debtor assets, are addressed first.

Following this, unsecured creditors are entitled to proportionate participation in the proceeds generated from the bankrupt entity’s assets.

Negotiating Payment Terms

Negotiating payment terms is another important aspect of managing business debts. Businesses can negotiate a new payment plan with creditors or enlist the services of a debt settlement company for representation. Collection activity is suspended during these negotiations, providing an opportunity to potentially:

  • Reduce the outstanding amount

  • Extend the payment period

  • Lower the interest rate

  • Waive late fees or penalties

By negotiating payment terms, businesses can find a solution that works for both parties and helps alleviate the debt burden.

Impact of Corporate Bankruptcy on Small Business Owners

Depending on the structure of their business and survival strategy, small business owners, including a business owner who operates a larger enterprise, may be deeply impacted by corporate bankruptcy and, in some cases, may even face small business bankruptcy themselves.

Sole Proprietorships vs. Incorporated Businesses

The impact of bankruptcy on sole proprietor and incorporated businesses is starkly different. Sole proprietorships do not have a legal separation between the owner and the business, making the owner’s personal assets vulnerable to seizure to settle business debts.

On the other hand, incorporated businesses are distinct legal entities, and shareholders’ personal assets are generally protected from being seized to settle the company’s debts.

Strategies for Small Business Survival

Despite the difficulties presented by bankruptcy, there are strategies small businesses can use to survive. These include:

  • Seeking guidance from a Licensed Insolvency Trustee

  • Reducing expenses

  • Collecting outstanding cash

  • Diversifying income streams

  • Taking advantage of government programs

Debt restructuring can also serve as a crucial survival tactic for small businesses, enabling them to renegotiate terms with creditors for reduced interest rates and more feasible repayment schedules.

Legal Consequences of Corporate Bankruptcy

Corporate bankruptcy entails several legal repercussions, encompassing director liabilities and the management of lawsuits and legal proceedings.

Director Liabilities

Directors can be held accountable for unpaid wages and other employment-related debts during corporate bankruptcy. They may also be personally liable for unpaid corporate obligations such as unremitted GST or HST.

Directors can oversee the proper deduction and remittance of financial obligations, such as source deductions, to mitigate their liabilities.

Handling Lawsuits and Legal Proceedings

Handling lawsuits and legal proceedings during corporate bankruptcy can be a complex process. Each step requires careful consideration and planning, from seeking legal counsel to managing legal actions and redirecting business mail related to legal adjudications.

Alternatives to Corporate Bankruptcy

Although bankruptcy might sometimes be the sole feasible choice for businesses, it’s worth considering other alternatives. These include debt restructuring and seeking professional financial advice to explore other options.

Debt Restructuring

Debt restructuring allows businesses to manage their debts effectively without filing for bankruptcy. This process entails submitting a proposal to creditors to repay the debt under modified terms from the original agreement. However, it’s important to note that debt restructuring can impact a company’s credit rating.

Seeking Professional Financial Advice

Professional financial advice can provide businesses with the following:

  • Insight into their financial situation

  • Options for managing their debts

  • Assistance in identifying alternatives to corporate bankruptcy through offering financial planning, budgeting, and personal finance advice


Bankruptcy is undoubtedly a challenging and complex process for businesses. However, with a comprehensive understanding of the legalities and processes involved, proper guidance from a Licensed Insolvency Trustee, and a strategic approach to managing debts and legal proceedings, businesses can navigate this difficult period and work towards recovery.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an example of corporate bankruptcies?

Some notable corporate bankruptcies include Bed Bath & Beyond and the parent company of Silicon Valley Bank, both of which filed for bankruptcy this year. Other well-known examples include Enron, WorldCom, and Lehman Brothers, which never recovered from bankruptcy.

Do companies ever recover from bankruptcy?

Yes, some companies do recover from bankruptcy and emerge stronger than before. Companies like General Motors, Texaco, and Marvel Entertainment have restructured and regained their footing.

Can you own a company after bankruptcy?

Yes, after being discharged from bankruptcy, you can own a company. However, it is important to stay current with tax filings and payments to avoid future financial issues.

What assets cannot be seized in bankruptcies?

In bankruptcies, creditors cannot seize some assets, such as furniture, RRSPs, RRIFs, and work tools required for professional activity. This list is not exhaustive, but it gives an idea of the generally protected assets.

What is the definition of corporate bankruptcy in Canada?

Corporate bankruptcy in Canada is a formal process for incorporated businesses facing financial difficulties and unable to meet their obligations, ultimately leading to business bankruptcy.